The Woman With The Most Famous Tambourine In The World

Nine years ago, Mrs. Chavah Cohen stood with other women in line when the Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach distributed dollars on Sunday. When it was their turn, they presented the Rebbe MH"M with a tambourine. Written on it were the words "Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu V’Rabbeinu Melech HaMoshiach l’olam va’ed." Photographs taken at the time became world famous and created a storm. * Mrs. Chavah Cohen tells the complete story behind the tambourine, about her emotions and her courage in standing before the Rebbe and addressing him as "Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach."

"A number of times women would question me: ‘Why do you look so familiar to me?’

"I would answer them, ‘I probably look familiar to you because of the picture,’" said Mrs. Chavah Cohen of New York. She then began relating the story of the famous tambourine that had "Yechi Adoneinu..." written on it, which they presented to the Rebbe MH"M a few days before Chaf-Zayin Adar, 5752.

This picture carries a very, very important message.

"That whole period of time was just totally out of the ordinary," explained Mrs. Cohen, describing the events that led up to giving the tambourine to the Rebbe MH"M. "At the time, the Rebbe MH"M was speaking strongly about Moshiach over and over again: who is Moshiach, the need for kabbalas ha’malchus (to accept the sovereignty), the message that the world is ready, and the famous words: ‘Do all you can.’"

When these extraordinary sichos were spoken, N’shei Chabad of Crown Heights began to confer about what they should do in order to advance the revelation of the Rebbe MH"M and promote the acceptance of the sovereignty of the Rebbe MH"M.

At a certain point, the women started collecting signatures from the community at large accepting the Rebbe’s malchus as Melech HaMoshiach. On about the 4th of Iyar 5751, a declaration with 250 signatures of acceptance of King Moshiach’s sovereignty was presented to the Rebbe MH"M. The Rebbe MH"M’s response was: "I received it with favor (t’shuas chein) and may this activity continue and increase. It is the appropriate time. Azkir al ha’tzion."

On the 8th of Iyar, a letter was sent to the Rebbe MH"M. This letter said that at a meeting of askanim and mashpiim it was decided to continue gathering signatures. The letter also included additional signatures. The Rebbe MH"M answered: "Azkir al ha’tzion. May you bring good news."

On 5 Menachem Av 5751, a minyan gathered at the gravesite of the Arizal, and they read the psak din (halachic decision) of rabbanim regarding the immediate revelation of the Rebbe MH"M. When they wrote about this to the Rebbe MH"M, the Rebbe replied: "May it be Hashem’s will that all this should have its desired effect. It is an appropriate time. Azkir al ha’tzion."

The women gathered thousands of signatures, and on Hoshana Rabba 5752, representatives of the women stood before the Rebbe MH"M. Leah Pinson, the spokeswoman, said, "We are a group of women who stubbornly request from the Rebbe that he reveal himself before everyone’s eyes as Melech HaMoshiach, and we will go out of Galus immediately." None of the women knew what the response of the Rebbe MH"M would be. After a moment passed that seemed like an eternity, the Rebbe MH"M responded, "Amen, hatzlacha rabba, good news," and immediately added, "For the letter, for the pidyon nefesh, and for the names, I give you an additional dollar."

Some time after that, a kinus was organized for all the women in Crown Heights about accepting the malchus of the Rebbe MH"M. This was the first kinus of its kind (and in its boldness) and it was organized with the bracha of the Rebbe MH"M.

Chavah said, "When the report of the kinus was presented to the Rebbe MH"M, he said, ‘I will mention it at the Ohel again; continue with much wondrous success in everything, etc.’"

On Gimmel Kislev 5752, a group of women stood again before the Rebbe MH"M and presented a beautiful box with signatures inside to the Rebbe MH"M. The representative of the group said, "Baruch Hashem, there are all kinds of wondrous activities concerning the mivtza of ‘they searched for Hashem and for Dovid their king.’ The mivtza is being spread far and wide under the auspices of N’shei Chabad around the world, and also by the shluchos. We, N’shei u’Bnos Chabad, accept Moshiach Tzidkeinu, Kvod K’dushas Admur shlita, and may we go proudly to our holy land immediately."

The Rebbe MH"M listened until the end and then said amen. The Rebbe then turned his attention to the box and said, "Is this for me? Besuros tovos." The Rebbe MH"M continued to focus on the box and the signatures and added, "For all these matters you need to give tzedaka. There will be great success. May you go from strength to strength until you come to Elokim b’Tzion in the true and complete Redemption. Bracha and success, much success."

On Motzaei Shabbos Kodesh, Chaf-Ches Teives 5752, N’shei Chabad arranged a seudas Melaveh Malka for the acceptance of Moshiach Tzidkeinu, and they received "a special bracha in a special time," to use the words of the Rebbe MH"M.

This Melaveh Malka was a historical event. All of the women from the neighborhood and from far away came. Everyone was so excited about this event that 770 was jam-packed before the time the event was called to start! The rabbanim who were going to speak had to be asked to please try and come earlier than scheduled because everyone was there so early! The emcee said that the showing of the women, who were packed into the shul ahead of schedule, shows how much the women really, really want Moshiach. Everyone cheered as loudly as they could!

Throughout all of the planning for each event, there were constant, warm responses from the Rebbe MH"M, one after the other, encouraging every activity we wanted to do. Naturally, this encouragement further inspired us to continue promoting the kabbalas ha’malchus of the Rebbe MH"M. If in the beginning N’shei Chabad had felt unsure if they were doing the right thing, when they saw the type of responses from the Rebbe MH"M they were continually receiving, there were no more doubts.

What kind of activities to publicize kabbalas ha’malchus outside of Crown Heights were arranged?

One of the activities was that on Friday mornings we went out to different areas or we arranged home visitations. Wherever we went, we simply said, "We are from Chabad-Lubavitch. Can we speak with you for a few minutes?"

We sat down and spoke about the proclamation of the Rebbe MH"M: "The time of your Redemption has arrived," and we told the people we were visiting that the Rebbe referred to himself as Melech HaMoshiach. We showed them some quotes the Rebbe had said in reference to himself as Moshiach. These quotes are taken from sichos the Rebbe said. For example: "Moshiach, Menachem is his name": "So will it be for us MiYaD [immediately], an acronym combining the names of the three Chabad leaders, and starting closest to our generation: Mem – Moshiach, Menachem is his name [which is the Rebbe’s own name]; Yud -Yosef Yitzchok, the Rebbe Rayatz, the sixth Chabad Rebbe; and Daled – Dov Ber, the second name of the fifth Chabad Rebbe." We showed them many quotes like that. We explained what a great merit and how important it is to sign that they accept the Rebbe MH"M’s sovereignty. The majority of people signed and thanked us for the merit we gave them to be part of this.

Our activities advanced in an even stronger way after the sichos of the Rebbe MH"M on the Shabbosim of Parshas Bo and B’Shalach 5752 about the superiority of the Jewish women and daughters who live in our generation. In these sichos, the Rebbe MH"M spoke about the advantage of women in bringing about the Geula. He said the women in our generation are the reincarnation of the neshamos of the women who left Egypt, in whose merit the Jews were then redeemed.

The key words of the Rebbe MH"M were a specific directive about singing and dancing. In the exodus from Egypt, the righteous women in that generation were so certain that Hashem would show them miracles that they prepared tambourines to take with them when they would be leaving Egypt. To quote: "Also in the final Redemption, the righteous women must – and certainly do – trust so completely in the immediate Redemption that they will begin immediately in the last moments of exile to play music and dance for the advent of the complete Redemption."

Is that when N’shei Chabad decided to arrange dancing for the Geula?

Exactly! Acting on this sicha, N’shei Chabad organized a giant event of dancing with music and tambourines, through which we were truly expressing our belief that the Rebbe MH"M will redeem us immediately. Cherna Light, Mindy Halberstam, Ariella Benayoun, and Shifra Chana Hendrie were some of the women who had planned the evening. This event took place in Oholei Torah on Motzaei Shabbos Kodesh, the night of Yud-Beis Adar Rishon 5752. Before this, they had requested a bracha and haskama from the Rebbe MH"M, and the Rebbe MH"M gave a blessing and added that it should be according to the standards of tznius. Only female musicians played music that night.

That evening everyone showed up – grandmothers and great-grandmothers, babies, girls, teenagers, and mothers. The evening started with a dvar malchus about Geula and Moshiach. After that, everyone burst forth into dancing! Everyone danced. Even the oldest ladies joined the dancing for a while. We danced hour after hour, electrified – we felt that we were actually dancing right into the Geula.

Throughout the night women were also inspired by the tambourine I brought. I received this tambourine as a gift, and I had asked my son to write on it: "Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu V’Rabbeinu Melech HaMoshiach L’olam Va’ed."

Was this the only tambourine at that event?

No, there were a few other women who danced with tambourines, but mine was the only one that had "Yechi" written on it. Everyone who saw the tambourine got all fired up that night. It was passed from hand to hand, from circle to circle; it contributed to the atmosphere, to the mixed feelings of yearning, expectation, happiness, and joy that here, right now, we are about to be redeemed.

This evening of Geula dancing went on until 2:00 a.m., with all the women leaving very much inspired and strengthened.

How did you get the idea to present the tambourine to the Rebbe MH"M?

During the dancing, Ariella Benayoun turned to me and asked, "Chavie, do you want to give the tambourine to the Rebbe?" Of course I immediately agreed.

The next day, Sunday morning, Yud-Beis Adar, Ariella called me and asked, "Do you want to pass by the Rebbe and give him the tambourine?"

"Why me?"

"It’s your tambourine," she said.

I agreed. I stood in the long line outside 770 together with a group of women as representatives of the dancing. I knew I wouldn’t be just giving the tambourine and doing nothing more. I needed to say something, to mention the previous night’s dancing. I was afraid to go alone, afraid that my knees might collapse… The whole time on the dollar line I was reviewing out loud the words I wanted to say to the Rebbe MH"M, because I was afraid that the moment I would get to the Rebbe MH"M my mind would go blank and I wouldn’t be able to say anything.

Finally I found myself standing before the Rebbe MH"M. The photographer started to take pictures. (There was always a steady photographer taking pictures and videos of the people at the dollar line.) I said to the Rebbe MH"M in Yiddish: "This is for the Rebbe shlita. With this tambourine the women danced last night with a simcha that breaks all boundaries, with a bitachon [trust] in the revelation of kvod k’dushas Admur shlita Melech HaMoshiach immediately mamash with the complete Redemption."

The Rebbe MH"M answered with a radiant smile, and great satisfaction was apparent on his face. All my fear left as if it had never existed. The Rebbe MH"M’s smile made me feel calm and peaceful. The Rebbe MH"M responded, "Probably you will leave this [tambourine] with me?" The Rebbe MH"M gave me one dollar and added another dollar and said, "This is for the sounding of the trumpets, as it is referred to in Tehillim. It should be in a good, auspicious time, and this is for the entire group."

Had you always addressed the Rebbe MH"M with the title "Melech HaMoshiach?"

This is the first time I spoke to the Rebbe MH"M this way, but before this I had written "Melech HaMoshiach" in my letters to the Rebbe.

What did you do with the dollars and the picture?

I enlarged one picture and framed it together with the two dollars. I also keep a picture in my pocketbook. When I go on mivtzaim I show the picture. This picture clearly shows the world the Rebbe MH"M’s approval and acceptance of the women’s recognition that he is Melech HaMoshiach.

Approximately two years later, Rabbi Yitzchak Gansberg from Crown Heights found out about the picture and called me immediately to make copies of it. On the back of the picture he printed the original words that were said in Yiddish and translated them to English and distributed the pictures all over the world.

I heard from many people that this picture opened the door for people who until then did not believe that it was the Rebbe MH"M who said, "The time of your Redemption has arrived" and that he is Moshiach. There’s no doubt that this picture nullifies a lot of doubts and misgivings. It’s impossible to remain indifferent when you see the pleasure radiating so clearly from the Rebbe MH"M at the acceptance of the malchus.

"Jewish Women United for the Redemption" is an organization headed by Basha Oka Botnick. She arranges speaker’s events and gatherings in people’s homes. Sometimes, together with friends, I speak at these gatherings. When we speak, we deliver a clear message that the Rebbe is the Nasi HaDor, Melech HaMoshiach, alive with a neshama in a body, and that he prophesized about the Geula and asked that we publicize it and prepare ourselves and others for it. At these gatherings, we present the women with excerpts of the sichos of the Rebbe MH"M about Moshiach and Geula. I show my picture and a video from that Sunday. When I show this video, half our work is done. 99% of the people present get the message.

In which communities do you speak?

We speak to all kinds of groups, including Satmar Chassidim, Littvish women, and women who aren’t yet mitzva observant. The words are accepted. We see how true are the Rebbe MH"M words – he said the world is ready.

How did you get a video?

In 770, videos and photographs were continuously taken of the dollar line, so I just went to WLCC (World Lubavitch Communications Center) and bought the part that had me giving the Rebbe MH"M the tambourine. The first few people I showed it to were strongly inspired by it.

We gave out the video at our son’s wedding in England in 5757. The video was our gift to the wedding guests; it was another means of publicizing the Rebbe MH"M’s prophecy of Redemption to the world. On the video we added a number of excerpts of the Rebbe’s strong sichos about his identity as Moshiach. The excerpts were famous quotes of the Rebbe MH"M, such as, "the Geula is already here," "do all you can to bring Moshiach," etc. We gave the video out together with the booklet about the Geula that Ruti Cohen and Sara Kanevsky published. (See issue 316 of Beis Moshiach.)

The video and the booklets we distributed at the wedding made big waves in England. When I returned to America after the Sheva Brachos, people called to tell me that Manchester was still in a tumult about it. As we were looking through the wedding pictures, we found a picture of one of the guests who belonged to the Litvisher community intently reading the booklet…

After we returned to America, I gave out on mivtzaim the pamphlets and videos I had left over from the wedding. When I ran out of them, I again recopied another batch of videos. I entitled the second edition of the video "The Time of Your Redemption Has Arrived." We added English captions to the sichos in the video and distributed it to hundreds of people.

What is the secret of the success of the picture and the video?

The secret of success is the Rebbe MH"M’s kochos in it. When people see the picture or the video of that event, they cannot negate the issue. My brother, Rabbi Gellis of Bnei Brak, told me that when he shows the picture to different people, it encourages and strengthens them.

For example, my daughter-in-law in Melbourne showed the video to one of her guests, a Lubavitcher who already believed that the Rebbe is Moshiach. He exclaimed to her, "Those words the Rebbe MH"M himself said?! I thought the Chassidim said all those things. Such strong words!" He was astonished to find that all those expressions originated from the Rebbe MH"M!

Beis Moshiach also recognized the potential of the picture, which was published on the front cover of issue number 37. The Friday that Beis Moshiach came out with the picture on the front cover, I was walking down the street and someone stopped me and asked, "Are you the woman who gave the Rebbe the tambourine? Were the words ‘Yechi Adoneinu’ written on it?" I replied yes to both questions, and he told me that someone is spreading a rumor that the picture is a forgery. "Maybe you should go to him and let him hear the facts."

I spoke to the person on the telephone and told him that I was the one who gave the Rebbe MH"M the tambourine. He told me the picture was definitely forged. He kept on arguing with me about it, and he asked why when he visited the Rebbe’s library he did not see the tambourine there. I answered, "It may be very possible that someone specifically did not want the tambourine shown there." I made up to meet him a few minutes later. I brought the picture I had enlarged that was hanging on my dining room wall, with the two dollars framed inside. I thought he would realize that I wouldn’t be able to forge that picture so fast, with the two dollars as well. He even tried to refute that picture. Comparing the picture on the cover of the Beis Moshiach and my enlarged picture, I showed him that both were the same. He remained silent and could not refute me further. A few days later he sent his daughter-in-law to see the video. She saw it 3 or 4 times.

Once, after the picture was publicized in Beis Moshiach, I read in that magazine a sharp letter written to "Letters to the Editor." Someone in Eretz Yisroel wrote the letter trying to bring proof that the picture was a forgery. He was beside himself that Beis Moshiach could do something as irresponsible as to print a picture that was a forgery. I personally wrote to him and told him that I would be going to Eretz Yisroel in a few weeks and if he wanted to, he could speak to me over the telephone when I get there. When I arrived in Eretz Yisroel and got to my destination, I barely had time to put down my things and take off my coat before the telephone rang. On the other end of the line was this man questioning the validity of the picture. I spoke to him at length and sent him a picture. He expressed his remorse and apologized for his letter. He was very happy to find out that the picture was legitimate.

Are these the only times you have had difficulty transmitting the message?

No. I constantly have to overcome ridicule from people. Ten years ago when I displayed the tambourine on top of our bookcase in the living room, one of the members of my family laughed at me and made a remark, "How about hanging it from the ceiling like a chandelier?" Then, while I was hanging up the enlarged picture of the event that was framed with the two dollars, a member of the family protested: "No! This is a private thing, a picture for yourself. You should put it in your bedroom." I said, "This is a picture that will be hung in the dining room to be seen by everyone as proof of the Rebbe’s words."

Although my belief is strong, when I’m speaking to someone and I notice that person making a face, sometimes it makes me clam up; it makes it harder for me to say anything and I have to push myself to overcome their ridicule. There are some people who I only have to see – that alone weakens me and makes it more difficult for me to speak. There’s no doubt this is what the Rebbe MH"M was referring to when he said that in our generation the main test is "not to be ashamed before the mockers." This is the first chapter in the Shulchan Orach and this is our hardest test.

Do you have a message for others that you want to relate?

Just keep on doing more and more. Every activity, no matter how small, affects the entire world.

On my birthday and other occasions, I have given out a present – audiotapes with different songs about the Geula. I can’t tell you what kind of a hard time I had making those tapes. During a visit to Eretz Yisroel, I was copying songs about Moshiach and Geula onto my own tape, which I then wanted to recopy so I could distribute a lot of them. Just copying a few songs onto my tape, which would usually take a few hours, took a few days. Everything was going wrong. The tape recorder wouldn’t work right…and then something else would happen – until I finally produced two finished copies. I decided to persevere, because I knew one thing – when something is very hard to do, that means it is important and there are forces trying to prevent it from being carried out. That is a signal that you must try harder and harder, so I did, and I was finally successful.

When I brought the tapes to the copy center, the worker accidentally erased the whole tape. I was almost ready to plotz! Luckily I had a second copy with me. It wasn’t as good as the first, but I had him make the copies from the second tape. These tapes were uplifting and strengthening to everyone who heard them.

I also printed out a page of excerpts of different sichos of the Rebbe MH"M in Hebrew and English about Moshiach and Geula. I made hundreds of copies and also distributed them.

Every small thing anyone does concerning Moshiach has a ripple effect, and we cannot estimate how great its power is. When I wrote "Yechi Adoneinu…" on the tambourine did I dream that it would get into the hands of the Rebbe MH"M and would be such a powerful force? I just innocently wrote the message on the tambourine so it would be ready for the Geula

Hashem will help us see the Rebbe MH"M shlita immediately now!

* * *

"Yechi" at the Isaiah Wall

On Sunday, June 11, 1995, the Jewish Women United for the Redemption was planning a gathering in front of the United Nations by the Isaiah Wall, where the verse about beating swords into plowshares is engraved. There were going to be speakers talking about Moshiach and Geula. I very much hoped that someone would say "Yechi," but at that time I had no say in the matter.

I wrote to the Rebbe to ask for a bracha that "Yechi" should be said at the event. In the Igros we opened up, the answer had nothing to do with what I wrote. But the Rebbe was definitely talking to me. The Rebbe said that I should take much better care of my health and recommended that I eat before davening. He wrote that the body was given to the person to take care of. The tikkun (remedy) for not doing so is to encourage others to take care of their health.

The truth was that at that time, I happened to be living alone at home because my husband was overseas and my children were out of the house. I was not looking after myself as well as I should have been. I said, "Yes, I know, I accept what you are saying to me – but what should we do about the event?"

I made a conference call to the gathering’s organizer, Basha Oka Botnick and a friend. My friend and I had previously decided that we would ask Basha for permission to bring someone to speak at the event. Basha answered the phone. "Oh, Chavie, it’s you – how great! I want you to speak at this event! I want you to describe how you went past the Rebbe and brought him the tambourine."

I felt so overwhelmed at how I had been immediately answered by the Rebbe MH"M, and overwhelmed at the great responsibility he was giving me. I was literally shivering. Tears were streaming down my eyes.

Although I knew I should use the opportunity to say "Yechi" when I would speak, I was hesitant. A friend told me that I should not question, and I should do what I feel I must do.

I went to the UN gathering and spoke about how I presented the tambourine with "Yechi" written on it to the Rebbe, and how I stated my acceptance of the kabbalas ha’malchus. I described how the Rebbe accepted my presentation. At the end of my speech, everyone stood there, transfixed. I exclaimed, "Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu v’Rabbeinu Melech HaMoshiach l’olam Va’ed!" That "Yechi" was awesome – it had a beautiful, long echo – because we were speaking near the water surrounding Manhattan.

I then gave each participant a postcard picture of myself handing the Rebbe the tambourine, which they eagerly accepted.

Shortly after this gathering, there was a change made in the UN Charter that related to the Isaiah prophecy. It just shows that whatever small or large thing we do, we can never estimate what the intensity of the outcome will be, since it’s not us – it’s really the Rebbe doing the work through us.

* * *


A representative of N’shei Chabad related: After Chaf-Ches Nissan 5751, there was a tremendous arousal concerning Moshiach among the women in the neighborhood and among the members of N’shei Chabad. In response to the words of the Rebbe MH"M, N’shei established the Moshiach Committee, which initiated and organized many activities.

The women felt so grateful to be connected to the Rebbe MH"M, and out of pure love for the Rebbe wanted to give the Rebbe MH"M a gift in honor of Rosh Chodesh Kislev 5752. The gift would be an expression of hiskashrus and a love that was even stronger than before. They asked Mr. Herschel Pekkar to create a beautiful silver pushka, in which they inserted donations collected from women towards the building and expansion of 770. Previously, the Rebbe MH"M had spoken about everyone’s obligation to participate in the building of 770 Beis Moshiach, physically and monetarily. Mr. Pekkar fashioned the pushka in the shape of 770. I don’t remember exactly what were the words we wrote on it, whether or not it said Melech HaMoshiach. Only a few minutes before we got to the Rebbe MH"M did we decide what to write.

I was the representative who presented the box to the Rebbe MH"M. This was a very emotional and special event. None of us knew how the Rebbe would respond to being called Melech HaMoshiach. I said something along the lines of: This tzedaka pushka contains the first donation that the women gave for the Mikdash M’at, 770, Beis Moshiach, a present from all N’shei u’Bnos Chabad to the Rebbe, shlita, in honor of the special day, Rosh Chodesh Kislev, and all the auspicious dates of the month of Geula, the month of Kislev. We request from Hashem, may He be blessed, that the Rebbe shlita should be healthy and strong and live forever, and that the Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach will lead us to Eretz Yisroel, and we will have eyes to see, ears to hear, and a heart to know and see this immediately."

We saw how intently the Rebbe MH"M listened to each word that was said in the bracha, and we saw the satisfaction on the Rebbe MH"M’s face the whole time.

All of the women present answered amen, and the Rebbe MH"M gave a dollar, then an additional dollar, and a dollar to tzedaka to hasten the Geula. Each woman in the group got a dollar and the Rebbe MH"M said to her, "To hasten the Geula." This whole episode was extremely moving – a very, very special moment.

 * * *


Mrs. Cohen relates, "As I said, we prepared the video tape which attests to the Rebbe MH"M’s acceptance of the kabbalas ha’malchus upon receiving the tambourine. We also added excerpts of the Rebbe MH"M’s sichos about Moshiach and the Geula. We put English captions in the video. In order to do this, a close friend of mine, Devora Leah Shalinsky, and I worked for many, many hours translating the Rebbe MH"M’s words. We wrote paper after paper.

After many tiring hours, Devora Leah went home to rest, intending to return and finish the job later. She fell asleep and had a dream of the Rebbe MH"M. In her dream, she was passing by the Rebbe MH"M in the dollar line. When it came to her turn, the Rebbe MH"M didn’t look at her; he was busying himself with many papers. Then the Rebbe glanced up at her and said, "Be careful with every word."

She awoke, very excited and emotional. When we got together again, we continued translating, recognizing the big responsibility that lay upon us.

We weighed and measured the translation of every word, and when we came to a few words for which we didn’t feel sure about their exact meaning, we asked Rabbi Y. Kaminker and Rabbi Nachman Schapiro, who helped us with the exact meanings.


 "This picture clearly shows the world the Rebbe MH"M’s approval and acceptance of the women’s recognition that he is Melech HaMoshiach."





Everyone who saw the tambourine got all fired up that night. It was passed from hand to hand, from circle to circle; it contributed to the atmosphere, to the mixed feelings of yearning, expectation, happiness, and joy that here, right now, we are about to be redeemed.



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